Alexander Calder (July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976)
Alexander Calder was an American sculptor best known as the originator of the mobile, a type of kinetic sculpture the delicately balanced or suspended components of which move in response to motor power or air currents; by contrast, Calder’s stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He also produced numerous wire figures, notably for a vast miniature circus.
In 1931 Alexander Calder married Louisa Cushing James, and after their marriage the Calders traveled continually, not only between France and the United States but also to South America and Asia. In 1955 and 1956 they visited India, where Calder created 11 mobiles.
In the 1970s Calder’s studio was at Saché, near Tours. There he designed his major stabiles and experimented with free-form drawings and paintings. His normal method with large-scale works was to create a small model the enlargement of which he supervised at a foundry in Tours. Although Calder lived most of the time in France, he maintained a home and studio in Roxbury, Connecticut.